Motorcycle and Bicycle Steering:

Click on any link numbered 1.0 to 5.0 below, to read more about it.

1.0 The new Torso-Arms-Handlebar steering theory:

It’s obvious and easily replicated, that the Torso-Arms-Handlebar mechanism turns the front wheel in opposite direction from the rider lean angle.

But it’s not at all obvious that this mechanism leads to the Torso-Arms-Handlebar Theory which explains so many things:
Slow speed stability. Three steps when going into a curve. A 2-Wheeler steering servomechanism. And much more.

2.0 Evidence supporting the new steering theory:

It’s hard to factually negate what this new theory explains:
– The easily replicated and observable countersteering that is done fully automatically at slow speeds, without knowing it or doing it intentionally.
– The reduced Minimum stable speed, as soon as you put your hands on the handlebar, without doing any jiggling of the handlebar.
– The prediction that the 2-Wheeler (orange line) leans more than the rider (yellow line) in a steady curve, as can be observed in nearly all motorcycle magazines, when looking carefully:

– The ease riding the 2-Skate, which has:
NO gyroscopic effect of a turning wheel, and
NO front wheel geometry:

3.0 Other known steering theories and techniques compared to the new Torso-Arms-Handlebar theory:

There are many other 2-Wheeler steering theories around, but it may readily be agreed that:
– The Countersteering theory (a) does not explain why you don’t consciously, voluntarily and actively countersteer below 20 KMH (12 MPH), on a Cross-Country mountain bicycle or on a slow going motorcycle, and (b) does not explain why nearly everybody doing Cross-Country mountain biking ignores countersteering, and rather identifies a curved line where to go, and follows it.
– The Target fixation theory warns to avoid looking at an object, in order to avoid hitting it, but it fails to explain why or explain why it’s different from a 3 or 4-Wheeler, where you simply turn the steering handlebar or wheel to go where intended.
– The Gyroscopic reaction theory and the Front fork geometry theory, (a) totally fail to explain the immediate stability gained when the hands are put on the handlebar of any 2-Wheeler, (b) fail to explain the stability at slow speeds like 5 KMH (3 MPH), of bicycles with super light-weight wheels having nearly no gyroscopic reaction effect, and (c) also totally fail to explain the stability and the riding smoothness of the 2-Skate.

Inversely, the new Torso-Arms-Handlebar theory easily explains all these pnenomena.

4.0 Recommendations to increase driving precision and safety:

– At standstill before starting on a motorcycle or bicycle: Lean your torso to the right or left in order to make sure that the handlebar and front wheel are oriented in the opposite direction, as expected by the Torso-Arms-Handlebar mechanism.
– During normal riding: Don’t steer by turning the handlebar. Keep elbows slightly flexed and steer by leaning your torso sideways and forwardly towards where you want to go. The Torso-Arms-Handlebar mechanism will automatically control the handlebar orientation.
– Occasionally when riding: Practice a Slalom Drill consisting of stiffening up the arms and rapidly leaning right or left in order to do a tight slalom on the road.
Do take motorcycle and cross-country bicycle steering courses, to refresh or gain unexpected skills.

5.0 Recommendations for New Motorcycle Concept development and use of a New Interface Concept (NIC):

– Get a good understanding of the Torso-Arms-Handlebar Theory, to avoid thinking that a new 2-Wheeler concept can be driven as such, with the torso blocked by seat belts against a backrest.
– Use the Torso-Arms-Handlebar Theory, to understand how the New Interface Concept (NIC) allows development of new 2-Wheeler concepts having the torso held by seat belts against a backrest.
– Create a media buzz with the Torso-Arms-Handlebar Theory and the NIC, in order to create a wave of interest towards electric 2-Wheelers capable of beating the competition, in being more energy efficient, while being swifter in trafic, lower in cost and still safe and comfortable.

Take your time exploring this site dedicated to better understanding of bicycle and motorcycle steering.
Then, you may have fun rediscovering your 2-Wheeler following your back instantly and precisely, when riding.

Please note that on this site, bicycles and motorcycles are both considered as being 2-Wheelers that ride similarly, even if one has an engine. So motorcycles are simply considered as being more powerful, faster and heavier, except in a few cases: Downhill bicycles equipped with front and rear suspensions, for instance, can easily use more gravitational power and go faster than small motorcycles.

Pierre M. Ethier, Mechanical Engineer.
Member of the Ordre des Ingénieurs du Québec
LinkedIn profile: Master Degree in motorcycle dynamics from Laval University, Quebec
Novel 2-Wheeler and 3-Wheeler concept designer for over 45 years.
Pierre Ethier may be pronounced “Pee-Air . A-Tee-A” to get you closer to the French pronunciation.

Pierre Ethier was the 2019 and 2020 mountain bike UCI Cross-Country World Masters Champion, in age group 70 plus. Yeah, the little-old guy still having too much energy to spare… The unique photo below shows the Fastest-and-old World Masters Champion Pierre Ethier in 2019, beside the Fastest Elite and multi-time World Champion, Nino Schurter from Switzerland .
This photo was exceptionally made possible in August 2019, because both the mountain bike UCI Cross-Country World Masters Championships and UCI World Elite Championships were held by Gestev at the same time and place: Mount Sainte-Anne, Quebec.

Pierre Ethier – Nino Schurter